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Digital

Digital accessibility: the possibility given to all to access the digital domain (regardless of the hardware and software used, the network, the language, the culture, the place of living, the intellectual or physical capacities, the digital means.

Digital Literacy : A counterpart of classical literacy applied to digital literacy is making navigation in information flows easy and accessible. This action makes the digital divide smaller.  

Big Data : Large, varied and agile collection of data used in many fields. As its name indicates (big data) the enormous importance of treatments and their perspectives is exploited for political, health, crime etc. analyses ....    

Cleantech : These are industrial techniques and services that use natural resources - water, energy, raw materials - to improve efficiency and productivity. This method allows a systematic reduction in the volume and toxicity of waste while guaranteeing the same or even better performance than existing technologies.   

CLOUD Computing : Using the computing and storage potential of remote computer servers using a network, mainly the Internet.  

Data Center : Physical site for data centralization. A group of computer facilities (routers, hard disks, servers, ...), stores and distributes data (in English data) via an Internet access or an intranet (internal).

EPD : Environmental Product Declaration. Life cycle analysis to find out the environmental impact of a product. Established in Europe, according to the EN 15804 standard, implemented and framed by the ISO 14020 and ISO 14025 standards.

Data Protection Officer (DPO) : the person responsible for data protection in the organization and in charge of the application of the DPSP with the link to this term. 

Ecosystem : The basic ecological unit of the environment (biotope) and the organisms living in it (biocenosis). For example, marine environments, deserts, mountains, forests are ecosystems. 

Rebound Effect : This is the difference between the positive side of energy efficiency such as building insulation, improved heating systems, less energy-consuming vehicles, and the negative side of increased use such as higher temperatures in homes and longer travel distances. The beneficial effect of efforts in terms of ecological economy is therefore cancelled out by an increase in consumer habits and customs. 

Grey energy : Also called embodied energy, is the amount of energy used throughout the life cycle of a material or equipment. The stages are: production, extraction, transformation, manufacturing, transportation, implementation, maintenance and recycling. This is masked, non-direct energy (as opposed to easily traceable use). Grey energy is human, animal, electrical, thermal, etc... The addition of these factors can determine the need for a product throughout its life cycle. The knowledge of these calculations will guide the consumer towards a reduction of the environmental impact thus generated.  

Digital divide : A digital divide corresponds to the differences in access between people who have the possibility to access digital (via devices or connection options) and those who do not.  

Green Tech : The Green Tech community, initiated by the Ministry, is a new approach by the collective to better achieve sustainable development objectives. The fusion of digital and green transition has created a community of values, supported by smart grids and data sharing. A new development model, gas pedal of technological innovation and promoter of wealth and employment is emerging thanks to GreenTech verte. A new kind of digital and ecological thinking in a nutshell.   

Greenwashing : a marketing or advertising method chosen by a structure to illusion on its eco-responsible commitment false. Other possible names: "greenwashing" "greening".

Hacker : In French hacker, computer expert in research of techniques to divert the protections of software and hardware. His motivations may be curiosity, the search for recognition or glory, his political awareness or even remuneration.  

Digital Humanities : Still called digital humanities, is a set of research and pedagogy in computer science, art, literature, humanities and social sciences. Its methods are based on the use of digital tools, both online and offline, while integrating new digital uses as well as more traditional subjects of study. 

Illectronism : It is the embarrassment, or even the inability, encountered by a person to use computer machines and tools because of their lack of knowledge of how they work. It is the extension of illiteracy transposed into the digital world.   

Literacy: This is the ability to understand and use computer equipment and written information on a daily basis, in one's private, professional or associative environment, etc ... to better achieve personal goals while increasing one's knowledge and skills.  

Low Tech: In French "basse technologie". Opposed to high-tech. They are practical, popular, economical, simple techniques, one of the characteristics of which is to consume recycled obsolete machines.

Social Media: Unlike traditional media, its contents are interactive between members who can create and modify shared content, in the form of a blog, community, wiki (see definition below), etc. .... The advent of web2.0 was born from social media. 

Mixity: The term mixity only appeared in 1963 in our French dictionaries. The very old term "mixed" meant "to mix" and was related to the education of girls. After the Second World War, co-education was related to women's rights or more generally to equality between men and women. Today, co-education tends to become diversity, i.e. the absence of all forms of discrimination and segregation. Definition according to Marie Donzel, for the blog EVE. Case of social mix: simultaneous presence or cohabitation, in the same place, of individuals of different nationalities, cultures, ages, socio-professional categories.

NICT: See definition "Information and Communication Technologies". 

Digital: In computing, digital refers to data processed by computer and by extension everything that refers to electronic systems built on logical functions to which arithmetic calculations are limited. The term digital is the opposite of "analogical" and "algebraic", the term "digital culture" is used to name social relations in the field of media. 

Obesoftware: software that uses excessive system resources and/or accumulates a large number of heterogeneous functions. Software installed automatically when new hardware is purchased is also part of obesoftware. Other names: bloaware, inflagiciel, boufficiel.

Programmed obsolescence: Techniques put in place by hardware manufacturers to consciously reduce the life span of equipment, to encourage faster replacement. A few examples: equipment not designed for technological evolution, weakening of connection cables, wearing parts and "consumables" with a short lifespan. 

Open data: In French "données ouvertes" are digital data that are freely accessible and usable by users. It can come from public or private sources, and can be provided by public authorities, public services, citizens or companies. 

Persona : This term designates a fictitious "person" who symbolizes the target user, integrating his main characteristics. In terms of commerce, it can be the "ideal customer". The concept was created by an American computer scientist at the end of the 90s, it is widely co-named "marketing".   

Digital pollution: Digital pollution is the set of negative environmental impacts due to the effects of digital - information and communication technologies. 

DPMR: General Regulation on Data Protection This is the regulation nᵒ 2016/679, a reference text from the European Union on the protection of private data. 

Rootkit: Intrusive software that allows access and maintenance in open mode to the data of a machine. Generally malicious, it is part of the digital security issue.

CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility It is the integration, by the company, of ethical and social issues in its activities, whether economic, internal and external interactions.

CSR: A set of individuals and legal entities linked by a social networking system, within a structure. By extension, the term also refers to the computer networking tools useful for this mutualized and collaborative operation. 

Self Data : Concerns the personal data of Internet users, produced, used, shared under their responsibility.

Smart data : Smart data or "intelligent data" is mainly used in the field of marketing. It allows the obtaining of targeted and relevant information. This resource, derived from big data, is used in particular to carry out e.marketing campaigns. 

Digital Sobriety : Approach carried out to minimize the impact of digital technology on the environment. The expression comes from the association GreenIt (2008) to encourage a more sober use of digital technology in everyday life. 

Information and Communication Technologies : Expression mainly used in the university sector, to group together all the computer, audiovisual, media, internet and telecommunications techniques allowing to communicate, to benefit from information sources, to store, use, create and share information in various forms: sound, image, video, text, etc. .... The expression "electronic communications" is used in legal and regulatory texts. (ICT: transcription of English information and communication technologies, ICT).  

Digital transformation : In terms of organization, it refers to the changes and new practices brought about by the emergence of new technologies. 

Digital transition : Otherwise known as e-transformation, the digital transition is a change in the face of the expansion of the Internet and digital technology and tends to make their influence on organizations visible and concrete. 

Wiki : Collaborative and interactive website where Internet users can write web pages, inserting links. Authors must be identified, the archiving of writings and the follow-up of corrections and revisions, etc. .... must also be ensured. 

Zero-Day : D-day security flaw exploited by hackers against vulnerable systems, before protections are effective. 

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

Last edited: 01/12/2020